FAQ

What can hledger do for me ?

hledger is a suite of reporting tools which can provide clarity and insight into your personal or business finances, time logs, or other dated quantitative data, with relatively little effort on your part.

You need only provide a list of transactions, as a plain text file in a simple human-readable format. (Or a time log, or a CSV file with conversion rules.) From this hledger can generate a variety of useful reports and interactive views:

  • list your transactions, payees, currencies/commodities, accounts, statistics

  • show the hierarchy of accounts and subaccounts

  • show the transactions affecting any account, and calculate its running balance

  • make a balance sheet, showing your asset and liability account balances

  • make a cashflow report, showing changes in your cash assets

  • make an income statement, showing your revenues and expenses

  • show a bar chart of transaction activity by period

  • show purchase costs/selling prices

  • show market values in any currency at any valuation date

  • calculate the rate of return of a savings account or investment

  • make reports from timeclock or timedot time logs

  • make reports from any CSV file

It can slice, dice, and present your data in different ways:

  • filter out just the items or time period you’re interested in

  • show multiple periods side by side

  • summarise accounts to give the big picture

  • rewrite or pivot account names to give different views

  • output reports as plain text, HTML, or CSV

  • run as a live-updating terminal UI, for fast interactive exploration

  • run as a web app, allowing remote/multi-user browsing and data entry

  • run as a JSON web API, for integrating with custom apps

If you add a few directives to the file, hledger can:

  • include multiple data sets

  • generate recurring transactions by rule

  • add extra postings (splits) to transactions by rule

  • show a forecast of future activity, eg to help with cashflow planning

  • make a budget report, showing your budget goals and status by account and period

Also, it can:

  • generate interest transactions by rule

  • help you enter new transactions with prompts or a terminal UI

  • help you convert and import new transactions from external sources, eg banks

  • be used as a library in a quick Haskell script or compiled program

How could that help me ?

  • More clarity, transparency and accountability, for yourself or others

  • Know what you owe, or who owes you

  • Know where the money went; steer your spending

  • Know how you spent your time; easy client invoicing

  • More foresight and ability to plan; avoid overdrafts, late fees, cashflow crunches

  • Know all the numbers you need for tax reporting; know how much to save for estimated taxes

  • Less stress, fear or overwhelm

  • More satisfaction, empowerment, and prosperity!

Isn’t manual data entry a pain ?

  • Not if you spend a few minutes every day.

  • Not if the benefits are worth it to you.

  • Not if you use a comfortable editor and copy/paste a lot.

  • Not if you use tools to help (editor modes, hledger add, hledger-iadd, hledger-web..)

  • Not if you use rules to generate your recurring transactions.

Isn’t importing from banks a pain ?

Not once you have set up a manual or automated routine for it. The possibilities vary by bank and country, but here are two simple workflows that are almost always possible:

Manual CSV import:

  1. Manually download CSV from your bank’s website.

  2. hledger import BANK.csv

  3. Review/clean up the new journal entries.

Automated CSV import:

  1. Review/clean up the new journal entries. (CSV was downloaded and imported overnight by a cron job.)

Ask us for help setting this up. See also How could I import/migrate from….

Isn’t plain text ugly and hard to use ?

No way, it’s great, honest. We love it. You’ll love it. It’s fast. It’s cheap. It’s non-distracting. It keeps you focussed on the content. It’s copy-pasteable. It’s accessible to screen readers. It’s resizable. You can pick the font and colours. You do not need “Plaintext Reader, Trial Version” to read it. you do not need “Plaintext Studio Pro” to write it. You can use your favorite editor and skills you already have. You can search in it! You can version control it. It works well over remote/slow connections. It’s future-proof. It will be just as usable in 15 or 50 years. You can still read it even without the right software or (if you print it) a working computer.

Accounting data is valuable; we want to know that it will be accessible for ever - even without software. We want to know when it changes, and revision-control it. We want to search and manipulate it efficiently. So, we store it as human-readable plain text.http://plaintextaccounting.org

Isn’t this too weird for my family, business partners, tax accountant to use ?

Maybe. You can ask them to enter data via hledger-web, or import from their mobile expenses app or a shared spreadsheet. You can show them the hledger-web UI, or HTML reports, or give them CSV to open in a spreadsheet.

Why did you start hledger ? How does it relate to Ledger ?

I (Simon Michael) discovered John Wiegley’s Ledger in 2006, and was very happy to find this efficient command-line reporting tool with a transparent data format.

Initially, I used it to generate time reports for my job. Before long I wanted that to work differently - splitting sessions at day boundaries, reporting in hours, etc. John had got busy elsewhere and the Ledger project now stalled, with unfixed bugs, wrong documentation and a confusing release situation persisting for a long time. I did what I could to help build momentum, reporting bugs, supporting newcomers, and contributing a new domain and website. But, I didn’t want to spend time learning C++.

I was learning Haskell, which I did want to spend time in. I felt Ledger could be implemented well and, in the long run, more efficiently in that language, which has some compelling advantages such as lower maintenance costs. I urgently needed a reliable accounting tool that I enjoyed using. I also wanted to see what I could do to reduce roadbumps and confusion for newcomers.

I couldn’t expect John to start over - at that time he was not the Haskell fan he is now! So in 2007 I began experimenting. I built a toy parser in a few different languages, and it was easiest in Haskell. I kept tinkering. Goals included:

  • to get better at Haskell by building something useful to me,

  • to learn how well Haskell could work for real-world applications,

  • and eventually: to provide a new implementation focussing more on ease of use, absence of user-visible bugs, and high-quality documentation and web presence. Also to experiment with new user interfaces, APIs, etc.

Before too long I had a tool that was useful to me. With Ledger still installed, and by maintaining high compatibility, I now had two tools with different strengths, each providing a comparison for the other in case of confusion or suspected bugs, which was itself quite valuable.

The Ledger project later revived and has attracted new active contributors. I have remained active in that community, sharing discoveries and design discussions, and we have seen many ideas travelling in both directions. hledger shared #ledger’s IRC channel until 2014, when I added #hledger to allow us more space.

I think having independent but compatible implementations has been quite helpful for troubleshooting, exploring the design space, and growing the “Ledger-likes” community. My other projects in that direction include the ledger-cli.org site, LedgerTips, IRC support on #ledger, and now plaintextaccounting.org.

How is hledger different from Ledger ?

File format differences

hledger’s journal file format is very similar to Ledger’s. Some syntactic forms can be interpreted in slightly different ways, eg hledger comments vs Ledger comments, or balance assertions.

A small number of Ledger’s syntactic forms are ignored ({ } prices) or rejected (value expressions). If you avoid these, it’s quite easy to keep a journal file that works with both hledger and Ledger.

Or, you can keep the hledger- and Ledger-specific bits in separate files, both including a common file. Eg:

$ ls *.journal
common.journal   # included by hledger.journal and ledger.journal
hledger.journal
ledger.journal
$ hledger -f hledger.journal CMD
$ ledger -f ledger.journal CMD

hledger’s timeclock format is also very similar to Ledger’s. hledger also provides a new timedot format, allowing a different style of time logging.

Feature differences

Compared to Ledger, hledger builds quickly and has a complete and accurate manual, an easier report query syntax, multi-column balance reports, much better depth limiting, an interactive data entry assistant, and optional web and terminal interfaces. hledger provides a different system for converting CSV data, with rules files and new-transaction detection which simplify the task of importing new data from banks.

Compared to hledger, Ledger has some additional power-user features such as the built in value expressions language, and basic lots/capital gains reporting. Also, Ledger generates reports up to 10x faster, and using less memory, when files get large.

We currently support Ledger’s main features:

  • Ledger’s journal format, mostly

  • csv format

  • timeclock format

  • regular journal transactions

  • multiple commodities

  • fixed transaction prices

  • varying market prices

  • virtual postings

  • some basic output formatting

  • the print, register & balance commands

  • report filtering, using flags and query arguments

  • automated postings

  • periodic transactions

  • budget reports

  • -X/--exchange

We add some new commands, such as:

  • activity

  • add

  • balancesheet

  • cashflow

  • check-dates

  • check-dupes

  • close

  • descriptions

  • diff

  • files

  • import

  • incomestatement

  • irr

  • interest

  • notes

  • prices

  • rewrite

  • ui

  • web

We do not yet support:

  • revaluation transactions (--revalued)

  • reporting lots (--lots)

  • reporting capital gain/loss (--gain)

  • value expressions

Functional differences

Command line interface

  • hledger does not require a space between command-line flags and their values, eg -fFILE works as well as -f FILE

  • hledger’s -b, -e, -D, -W, -M, -Q, -Y and -p options combine nicely. You can also specify start and/or end dates with a query argument, eg date:START- or date:START-END.

  • hledger’s query language is a little less powerful than Ledger’s, simpler, and easier to remember. It uses google-like prefixes, eg desc:, payee:, amt:, not:. Multiple patterns are combined using fixed AND/OR rules. We don’t yet support full boolean expressions, so some more advanced queries require two invocations of hledger in a pipe, eg: hledger print QUERY1 | hledger -f- reg QUERY2

  • hledger uses --ignore-assertions/-I to disable balance assertions. Ledger uses --permissive for that, and uses -I as the short form of --prices.

  • hledger cleans up some semantic confusion with status matching (#564):

    • hledger uses -P as the short form of --pending. Ledger uses it for grouping by payee.

    • hledger renames Ledger’s “uncleared” status (ie, when the status field is empty) to “unmarked”, and the --uncleared/-U flag to --unmarked/-U

    • each of hledger’s --unmarked/-U, --pending/-P, --cleared/-C flags match only that single status. To match more than one status, the flags can be combined. So the hledger equivalent of ledger print -U (ie: match all but cleared transactions) is hledger print -UP.

  • hledger print shows both the primary date and the secondary date if any, always. ledger print shows both by default, but with --aux-date it hides the primary date.

  • hledger’s and Ledger’s -H/--historical flags are unrelated:

    hledger’s -H makes register and balance-like commands include balances from before the report start date, instead of starting at zero:

    hledger register --help:
    -H --historical           show historical running total/balance
                              (includes postings before report start date)
    
    hledger balance --help:
    -H --historical           show historical ending balance in each period
                              (includes postings before report start date)
    

    Ledger’s -H changes the valuation date used by -V/-X:

    ledger --help:
    --historical (-H)
                              Value commodities at the time of their acquisition.
    

journal format

  • hledger supports international number formats, auto-detecting the decimal mark (comma or period), digit group mark (period, comma, or space) and digit group sizes to use for each commodity. Or, these can be declared explicitly with commodity directives.

  • hledger applies balance assignments and checks balance assertions in date order (and then by parse order, for postings on the same date). This ensures correct, deterministic behaviour, independent of the ordering of journal entries and files. Ledger checks assertions in the order they are parsed (ignoring dates), which is fragile.

    Also, hledger correctly handles multiple balance assignments/assertions in a single transaction.

  • hledger’s default commodity directive (D) sets the commodity to be used for subsequent commodityless amounts, and also sets that commodity’s display settings if such an amount is the first seen. Ledger uses D only for commodity display settings and for the entry command.

  • Ledger supports some additional price syntaxes ({ }, {{ }}, {= }), instead of or before or after @, @@ prices. hledger currently ignores any { }, {{ }}, {= } prices, and requires them to be written after @, @@. (#1084)

timeclock & timedot formats

  • hledger’s journal, timeclock and timedot formats are separate; you can’t mix them all in one file as in Ledger. (Though you can specify all files on the command line, or have a parent journal file include them all.) This simplifies the implementation and helps ensure useful parse error messages.

  • hledger always shows time balances (from the timeclock/timedot formats) in hours

timeclock format

  • hledger always splits multi-day time sessions at midnight, showing accurate per-day amounts. Ledger does this only with the --day-break flag.

What is ledger4 ?

ledger4 was John’s 2012 start at rewriting parts of Ledger 3, eg the parser, in Haskell. We included this in hledger for a while, hoping to attract contributions to improve this “bridge” between the projects, and improve our support for reading Ledger’s files. After some time it was removed again.

How could I import/migrate from…

Some quick/rough migration recipes:

Mint.com ?

  1. download examples/csv/mint.csv.rules, and adjust the account1 & account2 rules

  2. touch ~/.hledger.journal

  3. log in to Mint, go to TRANSACTIONS, scroll to the bottom of the page, click on the “Export all N transactions” link, save it as mint.csv on your computer

  4. cd ~/Downloads (or wherever you saved it)

  5. hledger import mint.csv

Now hledger stats and hledger bal should show lots of data. That’s your past data migrated.

Then, if you want to leave Mint, you’ll need to replace their automatic import from banks with your own import process.

Or if you want to keep using Mint for that, because you like how they aggregate and clean the data: just periodically re-export from Mint, repeating steps 3-5 above.

Why does this entry give a “no amount” error even though I wrote an amount ?

2019-01-01
  a 1
  b

Because there’s only a single space between a and 1, so this is parsed as an account named ”a 1”, with no amount. There must be at least two spaces between account name and amount.

Why do some directives not affect other files ? Why can’t I put account aliases in an included file ?

This is documented at journal format: directives. (Also mentioned at hledger: Input files.) These docs could be improved.

Directives which affect parsing of data vary in their scope, ie the area of input data they affect. Eg, should they affect:

  • entries after the directive, in this file only ?

    • Eg: alias, apply account, comment, Y

  • entries before and after the directive, in this file only ?

  • entries and included files after the directive, until this file’s end ?

  • all entries after the directive, in this and all included or subsequent files, including parent files ?

    • Eg: the number notation specified by D or commodity

  • all entries in all files ?

    • Eg: the default commodity specified by D, and account

The differences are partly due to historical accident, and partly by design. We would like to preserve these properties:

  • Reordering files does not change their meaning.

  • Adding a file does not change the meaning of the other files.

This is why some directives are designed to last only until the end of the current file. This can be annoying, but it seems worthwhile to ensure reports are robust, and not changed by simply moving include directives or -f options around.

For alias directives, when you have multiple files, the workaround is to put them inline in a top-level file, before including the other files that the aliases should affect. See #1007.

See also: #510, #217

Why am I seeing some amounts without an account name in reports ?

Some of hledger’s older commands (balance, print, register) show a multi-commodity amount with each commodity on its own line, by default (like Ledger).

Here are some examples. In the following journal entry, the implicit balancing amount drawn from the b account will be a multicommodity amount (a euro and a dollar):

2015/1/1
    a         EUR 1
    a         USD 1
    b

the print command shows the b posting’s amount on two lines, bottom-aligned:

$ hledger -f t.j print
2015/01/01
    a         USD 1
    a         EUR 1
             EUR -1  ; <-
    b        USD -1  ; <- a euro and a dollar is drawn from b

the balance command shows that both a and b have a multi-commodity balance (again, bottom-aligned):

$ hledger -f t.j balance
               EUR 1     ; <-
               USD 1  a  ; <- a's balance is a euro and a dollar
              EUR -1     ; <-
              USD -1  b  ; <- b's balance is a negative euro and dollar
--------------------
                   0

while the register command shows (top-aligned, this time!) a multi-commodity running total after the second posting, and a multi-commodity amount in the third posting:

$ hledger -f t.j register --width 50
2015/01/01       a             EUR 1         EUR 1
                 a             USD 1         EUR 1  ; <- the running total is now a euro and a dollar        
                                             USD 1  ;                                                        
                 b            EUR -1                ; <- the amount posted to b is a negative euro and dollar
                              USD -1             0  ;

Newer reports like multi-column balance reports show multi-commodity amounts on one line instead, comma-separated. Although wider, this seems clearer and we should probably use it more:

$ hledger -f t.j balance --yearly
Balance changes in 2015:

   ||           2015 
===++================
 a ||   EUR 1, USD 1 
 b || EUR -1, USD -1 
---++----------------
   ||              0 

You will also see amounts without a corresponding account name if you remove too many account name segments with --drop (a bug, which we’d like to see fixed):

$ hledger -f t.j balance --drop 1
               EUR 1  
               USD 1  
              EUR -1  
              USD -1  
--------------------
                   0

With hledger-ui in iTerm2/3, why does Shift-Up/Shift-Down move the cursor instead of adjusting the period ?

One way to fix: in iTerm2 do Preferences -> Profiles -> your current profile -> Keys -> Load Preset -> xterm Defaults (not Terminal.app Compatibility). And perhaps open a new tab with this profile.