Here is a start at gathering budgeting-related resources.

PTA budgeting notes

 <sm> two commands that are roughly equivalent: ledger budget --add-budget expenses, hledger balance --budget -E expenses
 <sm> they show both budgeted and unbudgeted accounts            
--budget has no effect on single-column reports, it requires a reporting interval
--budget INTERVAL enables all periodic transactions with that interval; these can be date-limited
--budget hides all non-budgeted subaccounts; can be depth-limited more
<sm> there's different ways to do budgeting                     [16:46]
<sm> let me try to count them                                   [16:50]
<sm> "envelope budgeting" is analogous to having a set of envelopes containing cash for different purposes. 
You can model the "envelopes" with 
a. real-world accounts (eg your bank lets you create arbitrary savings accounts), 
b. virtual (imaginary) subaccounts of a real-world account (eg your checking account), 
c. virtual accounts "off to the side" (budget:*)
<sm> also you can do the transfers to and from these manually, or generate them with automated posting rules
<sm> "goal budgeting" (best name I can come up with) involves setting some inflow/outflow goals per account per period, 
and then measuring how the actual flows compare with the goals. balance --budget provides this report
<sm> I think that's 7 ways

From https://www.reddit.com/r/plaintextaccounting/comments/doq9p5/new_to_ledger_budgeting_question:

Also search for budgeting links at http://plaintextaccounting.org . You'll see two main approaches discussed:

  1. "envelope budgeting" - sounds more like what you've been doing. Based around explicitly allocating money for each purpose. Good for managing > cashflow. Requires more journal entries. Can be done entirely manually (1a) but many docs advise using automatic posting rules to assist (1b). Many > different ways to handle the details. Requires more thinking.

  2. the other kind ("report-based budgeting" ?). Based around a special budget report provided by Ledger/hledger, which uses periodic transaction > rules to set budget goals. Automatic posting rules might be useful here too, I'm not sure. Provides less enforcement, requires less work. Fewer ways > to do it, perhaps provides simpler/clearer reports.

I often find "budgeting" covers/touches on quite a lot of topics:

  • setting earning/spending goals,
  • reviewing performance against those goals,
  • controlling earning/spending based on the goals,
  • allocating funds for short term expenses,
  • allocating funds towards savings goals,
  • updating allocated funds as transactions occur,
  • reallocating funds/balancing the budget,
  • end of period actions (roll over ? reset ?),
  • forecasting cash balances and managing cashflow,
  • forecasting income/expenses...

How to set up a time budget

  • create a time.journal which includes your (timedot or timeclock) time log file (assuming you're not tracking time in journal format)
    # time.journal
    include time.timedot
  • choose a budget interval, eg daily, weekly or monthly
  • if you have some historical timelog data, review average spending on that interval to get a baseline
    $ hledger -f time.journal date:thisyear bal -WA
  • in time.journal add a periodic transaction rule to allocate budget amounts, similar to baseline, on that interval
    ~ weekly
        (adm:time)       1h
        (ser:some:proj)  4h
  • run a budget report, using the same interval:
    $ hledger -f time.journal bal --budget -W
    Balance changes in 2017/11/27w48:
                ||     2017/11/27w48 
    adm:time      || 0.25h [25% of 1h] 
    ser:some:proj || 0.75h [19% of 4h] 
                ||             1.00h 

A time budgeting workflow

From https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=19203521, summary of my 2018-2019 time budgeting workflow:

I keep a hledger timedot file[1] open in a hot-key drop-down iTerm window. Each 15-minute chunk is logged with a dot. I group dots into hours for > quick visual scanning.

fos.hledger.sup  .
adm.email  ..
adm.finance  .... .... ..
fos.plaintextaccounting  .
fos.hledger.issues.941  .... .
has-res  ...
biz-res  ..

I've trained myself to update this often while at the computer, and before walking away. Delayed retroactive logging is also pretty easy. Working in quarter/half/whole hour chunks, and in rhythm with the clock, and having a pane showing recent sleep/wake/timelog-saved events, all help. Not every day is the same; this system has been quick and flexible enough to suit a range of conditions. I can set daily/weekly/monthly time budgets if I want. Some more details at [2].